Cell Therapy has played a major role in treating all degenerative diseases since the 1930's. Cell Therapy is meant to treat chronic viral, degenerative, congenital, allergic, and some cancerous diseases from an entirely different approach than that of a more drug-oriented clinical environment.
Properly prepared animal cells are known to induce tissue specific structural and functional regeneration in disorders related to the connective tissue, neurological, vascular, respiratory, digestive and immune systems. The main reason for a delay in acceptance from American physicians is the failure of university teaching centers to instruct in this modality, aggressive pharmaceutical industry influence, and that nearly all medical literature is written in German. A wealth of peer reviewed basic science and clinical publications around the world now document the mechanism of action and efficacy of Cell Therapy in a number of forms, regardless of language.
These two pathways to health are not mutually exclusive, nor considered competitive. American regimes tend to work better with emergent or acute problems such as trauma, rapid tissue failure, acute inflammation and infection. While Cell Therapy is more oriented to chronic degenerative diseases, non-healing wounds, immune incompetence, virus related tumor therapy, disturbed childhood development, premature aging, chronic allergies, and endocrine dysfunctions.
In the 1920's Russia ophthalmologist, Vladimir Filatov, initiated application of fetal cellular extract therapies for non-specific rejuvenation of chronically ill patients. His earliest claimed successes were reversing retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration.
In the 1930's, surgeon Paul Niehans, became increasingly interested in endocrinology, while Chief of Staff at a renowned Swiss hospital. Specifically studying the work of colleagues experimenting with implantation of animal glands into patients whose organs were not functioning properly.
In 1954, a medical conference in Karlsruhe, Germany had over 5,000 practicing cell therapy physicians attend the conference. It is a little known fact that over 2,000 medical publications have been written on cell therapy since 1930, primarily in German or Russian.
In 1967, the only known English publication on cell therapy by "Schmid F, Stein J. Cell-Research and Cellular Therapie (Ott Publishers, Thun, Switzerland, 1967)" which also included papers by researchers from Germany, Austria, Greece and Spain, succinctly presented the scientific and medical basis for cell therapy.
In 1975, "Literaturverzeichnes der Internationalen Forshungsgesellschaft fur Zelltherapie" a compendium of the most siginigcant cell therapy advances to date, was published in German to receptive reading audience.
From 1976 through 1990 dozens of biannual Cell Transplantation Symposiums were held throughout the former Soviet Union proffering cogent evidence of the safety and efficacy of cellular therapy.
In 1992, American researchers reported early success with fetus-to-fetus cell therapy for treating a severe genetic abnormality. Ismail Zanjani of the University of Nevada reported that transplanted human fetal tissue had "taken hold" in an infant born a year before, with many of the child's blood making cells apparently descendants of transplanted cellular tissue. The parents had previously lost two children to this syndrome. The case opened a controversy over using human fetal tissue in experimental therapy. The U.S. government position in the early 1990's was that such a use might encourage abortions and illegal trafficking of human fetuses.
In the 1980's, western medicine began to "legitimize" cell therapy, beginning with the work of Dr. Michael Osband (NEJM, 1981): Ten of 17 children treated for Histiocytosis X experienced complete remission after treated with intramuscular injections of thymus extract from five-day-old calves. This was the first reported use of a crude form of non-human live cell therapy under controlled conditions conducted within the U.S.
In 1983, the American Paralysis Association convention was told that cells taken from human aborted fetuses and injected into animals provided evidence of being useful in repair of spinal cord accidents and degenerative diseases.
In 1988, The LA Times reported that Dr. Kevin Lafferty, of the University of Colorado saw "good results" in six of 17 diabetic patients treated with "implanted cells" from fetal pancreases. The Times also reported that about 200 patients worldwide had received fetal liver cells, primarily to restore bone marrow loss because of cancer therapy. And that Dr. Robert Gale of UCLA, had implanted fetal liver cells into six radiation victims of the (then) Soviet Union's 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster (an ironic case in which American researchers utilized a form of therapy the American medical establishment considered unproven at best, and quackery at worst, to help save lives in a foreign country).
In 1995 and 1996, other examples of advances in cell therapy were exhibited when treating Myocardial Infarctions and other heart diseases; based in large part by the experimental works of Chiu RC (1995), Li RK (1996), and Menasche P (1996), each of whom were preceded by the well-documented clinical experiences of both German practitioners of Cell Therapy and Soviet Cell Transplantologists decades earlier.
Below are just a few of the over 2,000 medical journals referenced above.
- Menasche P, Hagege A, Scorsin M, et al. Autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation for cardiac insufficiency. First clinical case. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 2001;94:180-2.
- Strauer BE, Brehm M, Zeus T, et al. Intracoronary, human autologous stem cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration following myocardial infarction. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2001: 126:932-8.
- Strauer BE, Brehm M, Zeus T, et al. Repair of infarcted myocardium by autologous intracoronary mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation. Circulation 2002; 106:1913-6.
- Suzuki K, Murtuza B, Heslop L, et al. Single fibers of skeletal muscle as a novel graft for cell transplantation to the heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002;123:984- 92.
- Pouzet B, Ghostine S, Vilquin JT, et al. Is skeletal myoblast transplantation clinically relevant in the era of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Circulation 2001;104 (Suppl 1):1223-8.
- Jain M, DerSimonian H, Brenner DA, et al. Cell therapy attenuates deleterious ventricular remodeling and improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction. Circulation 2001;103:1920-7.
- Shake JG, Gruber PJ, Baumgartner WA, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in a swine myocardial infarct model: engraftment and functional effect. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;73:1919-25.
- Li RK, Jia ZQ, Weisel RD, Marante F, Mickle DA. Smooth muscle cell transplantation into myocardial scar tissue improves heart function. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1999;31:513-22.
- Min YI, Yang Y, Converso KL, et al. Transplantation of embryonic stem cells improves cardiac function in postinfarcted rats. J Appl Physiol 2002;92:288-96 10- Malouf NN, Coleman WB, Grisham JW, et al. Adult-derived stem cells from the liver become myocytes in the heart in vivo. Am J Pathol 2001;158:1929-35 11- Matsushita T, Oyamada M, Kurata H, et al. Formation of cell junctions between grafted and host cardiomyocytes at the border zone of rat myocardial infarction. Circulation 1999;19 (Suppl II):262-8.
- Ruhparwar A, Tebbeenjohans J, Niehaus M, et al. Transplanted fetal cardiomyocytes as cardiac pacemaker. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002;21:853-7.
- Scorsin M, Hagege A, Vilquin JT, et al. Comparison of the effects of fetal cardiomyocytes and skeletal myoblasts transplantation on postinfarction left ventricular function. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000;119:1169-75.
- Sakai T, Li RK, Weisel RD, et al. Fetal cell transplantation: a comparison of three cell types. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999;118:714-24.
- Hutcheson KA, Atkins BZ, Hueman MT, et al. Comparison of benefits on myocardial performance of cellular cardiomyoplasty with skeletal myoblasts and fibroblasts Cell Transplant 2000;9:359-68.
- Li RK, Mickle DA, Weisel RD, Rao V, Jia ZQ. Optimal time for cardiomyocyte transplantation to maximize myocardial function after left ventricular injury. Ann Thorac Surg 2001;72:1957-63.
- Roell W, Lu ZJ, Bloch W, et al. Cellular cardiomyoplasty improves survival after myocardial injury. Circulation 2002;105: 2435-41.
- Muller-Ehmsen J, Peterson KL, Kedes L, et al. Rebuilding a damaged heart: long-term survival of transplanted neonatal rat cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction and effect on cardiac function. Circulation 2002;105:1720-26.
- Saito T, Kuang JQ, Bittira B, Al-Khaldi A, Chiu RC. Xenotransplant cardiac chimera: immunotolerance of adult stem cells. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;74:19-24 Stem cells and myocardial regeneration.
- Toma C, Pittenger MF, Cahill KS, Byrne BJ, Kessler PD. Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to a cardiomyocyte phenotype in the adult murine heart. Circulation 2002;105:93-8.
- Etzion S, Battler A, Barbash IM, et al. Influence of embryonic cardiomyocyte transplantation on the progression of heart failure in a rat model of extensive myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2001;33:1321-30.
- Kim EJ, Li RK, Weizel RD, et al. Angiogenesis by endothelial cell transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;122:963-71.
- Dornbusch S. The effect of placenta on experimental cholesterinsclerosis. In Schmid F, Stein J. Cell-research and Cellular therapie (Ott Publishers. Thun, Switzerland, 1967), 134-40.
- Cunningham FG, MacDonald PC, Leveno KJ, Gant NF, Gilstrap LC. Williams Obstetrics. 19th ed (Appleton & Lange, 1993).
- Schmid F, Stein J. Cell-research and Cellular therapie (Ott Publishers, Thun, Switzerland, 1967).
- Schmid F, Stein J. Zellforschung und Zelltherapie (Verlag H. Huber, Bern, Stuttgart, 1963).
- Oetzmann HJ. Cell therapy for diseases of organs. In Schmid F, Stein J, Cell-research and Cellular therapie (Ott Publishers. Thun, Switzerland, 1967), 149-85.
- Schmid F. Zelltherapie-Grundlagen- Klinik-Praxis (Ott-Verlag, Thun, Switzerland, 1981).
- Schmid F. Celltherapy, a New Dimension of Medicine (Ott Publishers, Thun, Switzerland, 1983).
- Hendricks PJ, Martens A, Hagenbeek A, et al. Homing of fluorescently labaled murine hematopoietic stem cells. Exp Hematol 1996; 24:129-40.
- Zanjani E, Ascensao J, Tavassoli M. Liver-derived hematopoietic stem cells selectively and preferentially home to the fetal bone marrow. Blood 1993;81:399- 404.
- Hardy C. The homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow. Am J Med Sci 1995; 309:260-6 33- Gilbert SF. Developmental Biology, 4th ed (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA, 1994).
- Lenmark A, Freedman ZR, Hofmann C. Islet-cell-surface antibodies in juvenile diabetes mellitus, N Eng J Med 1978;299: 375-80.
- Kondrat'ev YaYu, Sadovnikova NV, Liozner AL, Fedotov VP. Antibodies to the surface of pancreatic islet cells: immunoenzymatic determination with rat target cells. Problemi endokrinologii 1986;32:39-43.
- Hopf U, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH, Freudenberg J. Liver-specific antigens of different species. Clin Exp Immunol 1974; 16:117-24.
- Lodish H, Baltimore D, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Darnell J. Molecular Cell Biology, 3rd ed (Scientific American Books, New York, 1995).
Regeneration - Rejuvenation - Revitalization
Research Center of Pediatrics (RAMS) (Academician Studenikin)
- Division of Nephrology: Genetic diseases, Chronic nephritis
- Division of Hematology: Aplastic anemia, M. Gaucher
- Division of Gastroenterology: Chronic hepatitis, Liver cirrhosis
- Division of Neuropsychiatry: Cerebral palsy, birth-related brain damage
- Division of Cardiology: Cardiomyopathy
Pediatric Hospital of First Moscow Medical School (Academician Baranov):
Research Center of Endocrinology (RAMS) (Academician Dedov):
- Congenital hypothyroidism
First Republican Pediatric Hospital of MHRF (Dr. Burkov):
- Transplantation of human fetal testis
Rehab. Center of First Moscow Medical School (Prof. Grinio):
Medical Center of the President of Russian Federation (Dr. Mironov):
- Down syndrome, pediatric genetic diseases
- Immune diseases, including AIDS
- Cell neuro-transplantation via intrathecal route for untreatable neurological diseases
Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs (MHRF) (Academician Shumakov):
- Complications of type insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
- Male infertility
Research Center of Emergency Medicine (RAMS) Division of Neurosurgery (Dr. Lebedev):
- Neurotransplantation for Parkinson's disease, for aphasia after severe brain damage
- Injuries, for status post-cerebrovascular accident
Moscow Burn Center (Dr. Smirnov):
- Non-surgical treatment of deep thermal burns (requiring skin grafting)
Research Center of Medical Radiology (RAMS) (Academician Tsyb)
- Post-therapeutic radiation damage of soft tissues
Research Center of Biophysics (MHRF) (Academician Il'yin):
- Treatment of accidental radiation injuries
Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, Perinatology (RAMS) (Academician Kulakov)
- Early menopause of various etiologies
- Intrauterine brain damage (early treatment)
- Infertility, female and male
Research Center of Human Reproduction (MHRF) (Dr. Vasiliev):
- Male infertility and impotence
Central Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (RAMS) (Dr. Shaposhnikov):
- Surgery of severe inborn deformities
Helmholtz Research Center of Ophthalmology (RAMS) (Dr. Brovkina)
- Myopathy of eye muscles
- Perforation of eye after therapeutic irradiation
Fedorov Eye Research Institute (Dr. Fedorov):
- Retinitis pigmentosa
- Diabetic retinopathy
Research Institute of Medical Technology (MHRF) (Dr. Davydov)
- Biodegradable biopolymers saturated with stem cell transplants for reconstructive surgery and artificial organs
- First Stomatological Institute.