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Multiple clinical applications have shown that stem cell therapy for can be safe and effective in improving Quality of life and reducing burden of brain disorders like Parkinson's, Autism, Cerebral palsy and Traumatic brain injury.
Neuronal stem cells have shown to be most effective in homing to nervous system and repairing of damaged brain tissue after insult.
ProGenaCell neuronal stem cells are harvested from fresh human cord blood for multiple reasons (see below).Neuronal stem cells are transiently engrafted into the brain and have been shown to deliver multiple favorable trophic factors inducing neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis.
ProGenaCell neuronal stem cells release a variety of trophic factors, growth factors and cytokines known to enhance the reparative brain process. Direct replacement of cells with functional connections is less likely given the complexity of neural networks and the short time frame in which improvement is seen. Multiple mechanisms may work in some cases contributing to overall functional improvement. In the acute to subacute phase after stroke, the intravenous route might be best as a neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory strategy. At later time intervals, intrathecal routes might be preferable to better reach ischemic areas and deliver trophic factors. In chronic stroke, direct intracerebral injection is more preferable for delivery cells to brain areas surrounding infarction capable of enhancing recovery. Our physicians implanted cells subduralLy overcoming technical difficulties in several cases.
Freezing stem cells causes progressive injury during each of its three phases: 1) cooling 2) maintenance in the cold, and 3) rewarming. In addition to metabolic imbalances, measurable changes also occur in the cell and its organelle membrane lipid domains. These structural characteristics (transitions) result in a change in membrane fluidity from preferred liquid-crystalline state to less preferred solid gel state thus yielding a "leaky" membranous state.
Moreover, a cascade of damaging cellular events generally occur, including:
The vast majority of stem cell centers use frozen stem cells exceedingly more than fresh stem cells, because:
Several routes of delivery are used to treat degenerative brain disorders; 1) intravenous delivery is quick and non-invasive, but cells get filtered through the lungs, multi-organ exposure and require large quantities of stem cells. 2) Intra-arterial delivery is more invasive then IV, can cause cell clumping, but more targeted delivery to the brain, and uses a smaller quantity of cells compared to IV. 3) Intrathecal delivery is the most invasive, but provides the most direct delivery of cells to brain, and uses the least quantity of stem cells. ProGenaCell physicians 3) intrathecal delivery as its method of choice.
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